The man in the street has a very fair idea of the meaning of the word SCIENCE. It includes, he feels, such persuits as astronomy, chemistry, biology. He is not so sure whether engineering or medicine is science, and is quit sure that politics, history, art, religion and the like are not.
The scientist is more interested in doing scientific work than in defining it. He sometimes says that a piece of work or a book is “unscientific” and he usually means by the phrase that it is inexact; that is badly arranged; that it jumps to conclusions without sufficient evidence, or that the author has allowed his personal prejudices to influence his report. By scientific work,then, we mean that which is as exact as it possible, orderly on arrangement, and based on sound and sufficient evidence. Moreover, it must have no object except to find out the truth.
Perhaps science is most clearly defined by saying, that it is firstly a vast collection of facts expresed in exact and unambiguous language in such a manner that anyone who cares to take the trouble can test their truth; and secondly a collections of rules or laws which express the connections between these facts. This does not sound very interesting but extremely important. as long as men hunted fr knowledge in a random sort of of way and believed each others assertions without testing them, knowledge made negligible progress. Once they began to make sure that their facts were right by doing experiments for themselves, science began to grow.
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